हर्टाग समिति की नियुक्ति का क्या कारण था?
What was the reason for the appointment of the Hartag Committee?
The propagation of national sentiments was spreading rapidly in the country, the people of the country had no faith in the 1919 Act. He called it a joke. Countrywide national movement, public awareness and circumstances arising out of slaughter rule, forced the government to study the difficulties arising in the field of education. On 8 November 1927, the Simon Commission was appointed because there was intense criticism of the foreign education system imposed on the country by the British. To investigate the justification for this criticism, the commission appointed a committee headed by Sir Philip Hartag. In the name of him, this committee is famous in the history of Indian education as the Hartag Commission.
Hertag Committee and its report
After studying all the parts of Indian education, the committee presented its report to the Simon Commission on September 1929. The report gave a detailed explanation of Indian education. The report mentioned that it is true that in the decade from 1919 to 1927, education has progressed in every field. Along with the development of education, there was a qualitative advancement of education. The committee also acknowledged that all the women of the upper, middle and lower classes of India are more willing than ever to get education. The report mentioned that the leaders of the country have a strong desire to solve and understand the difficult problems of education. The Committee on Elementary Education, Secondary Education and University Education respectively highlighted which are mentioned below.
Self assessment question
1. What was the reason for the appointment of the Hartag Committee?
2. What were the main issues to consider before the Hertag Committee?
Which area of education did the Hertag Committee emphasize more?
10.2 Primary Education
The Hertag Committee felt that at that time the progress of primary education had progressed but was not more satisfactory. In this regard, the committee said, “In recent years, due to many reasons, attention was paid to higher education and primary education was completely ignored.”
“While much attention has been paid in the past to the consideration of the higher forms of education, the problems of Primary Education have been comparatively neglected.”
The major obstacles in the path of development of primary education are:
1. Higher education was given more attention than primary education.
2. Majority of the population of India lives in villages. Due to literacy problem in the villages, no educated person likes to live there.
3. Due to poverty, the villagers send their children to work on the fields at an early age. Because of this, the question of writing studies does not arise.
4. There is a lack of means of transport in the villages. For this reason, students have difficulties in going to school.
5. Various languages of the country have also hindered the path of education.
6. Being illiterate, the villagers do not consider education to their children as their main duty.
7. There are also villages where there is no school. Due to lack of means of transport, one cannot go from village to village.
The committee said that the provincial governments did not take any concrete steps in the field of primary education. This is why primary education reached a pathetic condition. The situation would have been different had the government paid attention with interest. The committee also found that there was an increase in primary schools but it did not yield real benefits.
Wastage and blocking
In the current history of Indian education, this problem was first noticed by Hatag Committee (1929). According to the committee, “
the removal of the child from school before completion of primary education is wastage.” “By wastage we mean the premature withdrawal of children from school at any stage before the completion of the Primary Course.”
And to pass a class in more than a year, he called block. In other words it can be said that “any child is bound in any class for more than one year.”
“By Stagnation we mean the retention in a class of a child for a period of more than one year.”
What were the main questions to consider before the Hertag Committee?
As soon as dissipation is noticed, attention is drawn to the one who has received primary education. If it is decided that every child reaches the eighth grade, then the removal of the child from the school before reaching this class will be called waste. Some such situations come to the place due to which the child stops coming to class and he remains illiterate. . Expressing views on the purpose of primary education, the committee said that the primary objective of primary education is to spread literacy among the common people and teach them to use the franchise properly. But these objectives cannot be achieved due to wastage and blockage. According to the committee, the main reasons for wastage and blocking are as follows:
1. Children do not get any benefit due to inappropriate curriculum.
2. In most schools there is only one teacher who teaches all the students and all subjects alone. A teacher cannot do justice to all subjects.
3. Primary school is scattered far and wide.
4. The number of primary schools is high but due to limited number of inspectors, they are unable to inspect schools regularly.
5. The teaching method is obsolete and amnological. Which has little effect on the brain of children.
6. There is lack of teaching material in primary schools.
7. Adequate teachers are not available in primary schools. Teachers who are doing teaching work lack the necessary qualifications and training.
8. Many primary schools are closed midway due to economism.
9. Due to poverty, parents put their children to work.