इंग्लैण्ड में गुप्त मतदान की व्यवस्था का बिल पारित
Bill passed for arranging secret voting in England
Agricultural laborers on most occasions tried to ban the wishes of the Lok Sabha. In spite of all this the bill had the following shortcomings
(1) Women, agricultural laborers and mine workers were deprived of the franchise
(2) Due to lack of secret voting system, the workers were still not freed from the mill owners’ influence area.
(3) The franchise still could not become a fundamental right and the property remained in effect.
(4) Constituencies still not determined on the basis of population.
(5) Due to absence of system of salary of the members, the membership was limited to the financially rich people.
Hence, the purpose of parliamentary reforms from 1867 AD to 1918 AD was to remove the above deficiencies. In 1872, a bill for secret ballot system was passed. Under this, the election paper (ballot paper) was arranged. Bribing or terrorizing voters by another bill was considered a criminal offense. In 1883, the ‘Correct Practices Act’ was passed to prevent corruption prevailing during elections. Accordingly, the amount spent by the candidates of Parliament at the time of election was limited.
Third reform act
The Suffrage Act was passed in 1884 AD during the Prime Ministership of Gladston, the leader of the Liberal Party, according to which, like the bards, all the landlords and 10 pound annual renters were given the franchise in the county. In 1885, the government passed the act of redistribution of seats. The constituencies were redistributed by this. Barrens whose population was less than 15,000. Seized the right of representation from and was merged with the county. Bars with a population up to 50,000 were given the right to send only one representative and those with populations between 50,000 and 1,65,000 were given the right to send two representatives. 50 per 50, with population of more than 1,65,000 Got the right to send an additional representative on the 000 population. Barring 22 cities and universities with two members, the rest of the country was made a one-member constituency. The number of Members of Parliament (House of Commons) was increased from 658 to 670. The expansion of the franchise led to another 20,00,000 new voters.
Parliament (House of Commons)
With the Third Reform Act, the agricultural laborers of the counties and the small Nagaras, residents got the franchise and the voting ability became very similar. Famous scholar Adams wrote the importance of this act and wrote that the Reform Act of 305 AD brought England to the door of the democracy, then the Third Reform Act of many opened the doors of the democracy. “This Act, even though England still does not become a full democratic state. Found because
(1) The comprehensive theory of adult suffrage was not confirmed. Third qualification was reduced only in the counties. Still almost 30 percent of adult men did not get the right to charity.
(2) This franchise was not given to women.
Parliamentary Act of 1911
The House of Commons became the House of Representatives of the people by various reforms Acts. But the Lord Assembly, still with hereditary membership, was able to abolish the bills passed by the elected House of Commons because the approval of both houses was necessary for any bill to be passed. Since most of the lords were wealthy feudatories, they were opposed to democratic reforms. Along with the democratic sentiment in the country, opposition to Lord Sabha also increased. When in 1909 AD, the House of Commons, which was then dominated by the liberal party, passed a budget, in which heavy taxes were levied on the rich to help the poor, So the members of the Lord’s Assembly rejected that budget. But the liberal government considered this act of Lord Sabha contrary to the constitution and violation of the rights of the House of Commons. The House of Commons was dissolved to seek public opinion on this question. Liberals got more places than before in the new elections. In the end the Lord’s Assembly passed the budget.
House of commons
The House of Commons passed a Parliament Act intended to limit the power of the Lord’s Assembly forever. Initially, the Lord Assembly refused to approve the Act, but when the king threatened to nominate a new Lord Member, he succumbed and the Parliament Act of 1911 was passed, according to which
(1) Lord House Money The related bill (budget) will be able to be stopped only for thirty days and after this period, without the approval of the Lord’s Assembly, it will be deemed to have passed as soon as the king is signed. Thus, the veto of Lord Sabha regarding financial bills was abolished completely.
(2) If the House of Commons passes a bill in three consecutive sessions, it will become law only after the King’s signature, despite the rejection of the Lord’s Assembly. In this way Lord Sabha could stop subjects other than money related subjects for only two years.
(3) The tenure of the House of Commons was reduced from 7 years to 5 years.
In this way the influence of the House of Commons increased in England and the House was left as the second house.
In the late nineteenth century, women began to equate themselves with men. In this era, women’s education was also spread. Demand for franchise was raised to women. Noted political scientist J.J. s. The mill worked tirelessly to get women to vote. Mill wrote several books in this regard. In 18704, Sir Jekab Bite also raised voice to enlist women. Many Vitra societies were formed. In 1903, Mrs. Pankhst, widow of a lawyer: began to organize women militarily. The women’s movement on the franchise gradually became fierce. Finally, in 1918 AD, a bill was passed by which women above the age of 30 also got the franchise and in 1928 AD, women citizens above 21 years were also given franchise by a bill.
1. In the period 1815-1848 two great social forces were pitted against each other : the traditional ruling class whose roots lay in ‘Ancien Regime’, and the new men of the Industrial Revolution who made their bid for power in the name of liberalism. (J. oz: Europe between Revolutions-1815-1848, Fontana, London, 1988