मजदूरों की अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय एकजुटता को एक आधारभूत सिद्धान्त
A fundamental principle of international solidarity of workers
Socialism in england
The working class got the right to vote in England through the Reform Acts of 1867 and 1884. After the suffrage of the working class, the socialist movement in England progressed rapidly. In January 1900, members of trade unionists and socialist groups such as the Fabian Society, the Independent Labor Party and the Social Democratic Federation met in which an organization called the Labor Representation Committee was established. This committee fielded a number of candidates in the 1900 general elections, but only two of them won, one of which was Kier Hardy. Later on, R trade unions became attached to it. In the election of 1906 AD, this committee got 30 seats in Parliament. Soon after, it changed its name to Labor Party. The rise of the Labor Party was an important event in British politics. 1910 A.D.
Socialism in Russia
However, in Karl Marx’s view, the situation of Russia was adverse to revolution because Russia was much more backward in industrialization than the autonomous countries. But Russian was the first or language in which Russian intellectuals produced Marx’s “Puji” (Das Kapital). The influence of Marxist ideas began to increase with industrialization in Russia. The followers of 7 started working among the laborers and their newspapers and pamphlets came out despite the restrictions. Through small committees, a nationwide organization was being formed. In 1883, Marx’s follower, George Nau, founded the Russian Social Democratic Party. 1898 AD In 19034, due to this party being Social Democratic Leather, together with many other socialist groups formed the Russian Social Democrati Party. But due to differences on questions of organization and policy. This new party split. The Manasheviks (Minorities) and the Bolsheviks (Majority Parties). Manasheviks were supporters of German socialism, they were in favor of bringing a middle class capitalist revolution from total socialism and wanted to adopt a liberal humanist for it. Thus the Manhevik working class along with others Wanted to establish a democracy in Russia with the help of classes, while the Bolsheviks were in the Amik Revolution Cage.
According to the Bolsheviks, in a country which has neither democratic rights nor tax parliament, there will not be any change in the party made to suit the parliamentary system. This group was in favor of forming a party whose members were disciplined and work for the revolution. In the future, the Bolsheviks continued to become powerful. The leader of Bolshevica was Vladimir Ilyich Ulianod who became famous as Lenin. Lenin is considered to be the most important thinker of the socialist movement after Marx and Engels. He engaged himself in the work of organizing the Bolshevik Party as a tool to bring revolution. Russian socialists, including Plekhanov and Lenin, played an important role in the Second International.
It is clear that before the establishment of the Second International, socialist parties were formed in almost every country of Europe. Some of them were quite strong and their member numbers were in the millions. He participated in national elections and was well represented in Parliament. During the last decade of the nineteenth century, the socialist movement was taking root in Japan too.
A conference was held in Paris on July 14, 1889, on the centenary of the French Revolution of 1789 AD, to formulate the socialist parties of different countries under an international organization, which was attended by 400 delegates from twenty countries. This conference resulted in the establishment of Second International. The establishment of the Second International marked the beginning of a new phase in the history of socialism. The establishment of the International signified the rapid spread of Marxist socialism.
Second International Conference
At the Second International Conference, it was decided that one Bhai Day should be celebrated every year as a day of solidarity of the working class. It was decided that the day should be a great international demonstration in such a way that “all the countries and civil laborers together demand from the then rulers that the work layer should go to the common layer.” On May 1, 1890, millions in all Europe and America Mazd went on strike and staged huge demonstrations. Since then, May 1 is celebrated in the form of international fun all over the world. After the establishment of the Second International, the power of trade unions and socialist parties steadily increased. In Germany, Britain and France alone, the labor unions had a total membership of about 8 million.
Movement against militarism and war
The most important achievement of the Second International was the movement against militarism and war. Since the last decade of the nineteenth century, militarization in every country of Europe has been rapid. War clouds were flying around and every country was spending more and more on preparing for war. The Socialists believed that capitalism was the cause of war. He also decided that although wars can be ended only with the destruction of capitalism, however, it is the duty of socialists not to let war take place and if it starts it should be ended at the earliest. The conference also decided that “socialists should use the economic and political crises created by war to awaken the masses and bring the collapse of capitalist rule closer”.
Fall of capitalist rule
The socialist movement had made the international solidarity of the workers a fundamental principle. At the time when Russia and Japan were at war, at the time, the leader of the Japanese Socialist Party and the leader of the Russian Socialists Second International was made joint president in the Congress of 1904 AD. Socialists of many countries decided to go on a general strike to prevent their country from joining the war. They had to suffer at the hands of their own governments preparing for war. The great leader of the French Socialists, Jan Zore, was killed at the time of the First World War to launch a movement against the war.